Academic language has a set that is unique of: it ought to be explicit, formal and factual in addition to objective and analytical in nature.
Attributes of Academic Language
Students often think that academic language should sound complex and start to become difficult to write and understand but that’s not always the situation. Instead, academic writing should really be clear and concise in order to communicate its contents into the simplest way.
This site serves as a synopsis of this features of academic language and the corresponding language skills that are required to understand and use academic language. These guidelines are intended to help you have a clearer understanding of the demands of academic writing and develop skills to enhance your writing that is academic in.
For a quick introduction to academic writing, watch this 3 minute video from Lund University:
Formal writing requires effort that is considerable construct meaningful sentences, paragraphs, and arguments that make the text simple to comprehend. As a whole this means conversational English must be avoided and facts and figures must certanly be presented in a manner that is clear. Academic texts must be factual, concise and accurate. Choose words precisely and carefully so that the reader can accurately comprehend the concepts inside the text.
It is essential to keep in mind that academic texts are written with an audience that is academic mind as well as your writing style needs to conform to the conventions associated with field you will be studying.
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To have the level that is appropriate of, you need to read literature inside your field. This may also allow you to learn and employ terms that are subject-specific. Correct usage of language and terminology facilitates your communication and heightens the credibility of your work.
The Academic Phrasebank from the University of Manchester is a rich resource of phrases that can be utilized in academic writing.
In English, contractions are used in informal settings as they are therefore not right for academic texts. In the place of using a contraction you should write the words out inside their entirety. Listed below are a few examples:
Don’t – do not
Wasn’t – was not
Can’t – cannot (Observe that it is printed in one word)
It’s – it is (take notice of the difference between “it’s” (contraction of “it is”) and the possessive “its” (as with “The dog wagged its tail”)
Acronyms and Abbreviations:
You will need to use acronyms and abbreviations properly in academic writing so your text is really as clear that you can for your reader. You should only use abbreviations when the reading is made by it of your text easier. Another rule of thumb is the fact that term that is abbreviated appear at the very least three times into the paper. It might be better to spell it out if you use a term more rarely. Words that are commonly abbreviated such as for instance “professor” (prof.) and “department” (dept.) should be spelled call at academic texts. Note however that some abbreviations works extremely well in citations and reference lists.
An acronym is a type of abbreviation that is formed because of the letter that is first of word in a phrase or organization. UN and WHO are two samples of well-known acronyms. Whenever you introduce the acronym, you need to write out of the whole name or phrase accompanied by the acronym in parentheses. Once you’ve introduced it, you may make use of the acronym when you look at the rest of the text. For instance:
The planet Health Organization (WHO) has expressed concern over the spread associated with the virus. The Who’s Got therefore….
Latin abbreviations should not be utilized in the text itself but works extremely well in parentheses or in notes and illustrations.
In academic writing, the complexity regarding the subject matter is acknowledged through critical analysis. This is often done through asking questions and examining and evidence that is evaluating. Through critical analysis we could add a new perspective to a subject rather than just rewriting what was already written.
Treating your topic along with your material in an analytical manner should seep through in your language. Element of being analytical in your writing is always to compare and contrast, evaluate and consider both relative sides of an issue. In addition it implies that you explain, give reasons, draw conclusions, make suggestions and recommendations and support this with evidence.
Academic writing is founded on research rather than from the writer’s own opinion about a given topic. Once you write objectively you may be worried about facts rather than affected by personal feelings or biases. When presenting a quarrel into the reader, you will need to show both sides when you can and steer clear of value that is making.
In the time that is same will probably want to do an analysis or a discussion plus in that manner express an attitude. To be able to convey attitude without using for example “I think”, you might use words such as for instance apparently, arguably, ideally, strangely and unexpectedly. Remember that the attitude you are expressing should not be centered on personal preferences but rather regarding the evidence that you will be presenting.
For more info and examples of subjective and objective language, see this handout from the University of Adelaide.
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In general, academic texts are impersonal in general. This means the main emphasis should be on evidence and arguments and not predicated on personal opinion and feelings. Making use of personal pronouns such as “I”, “we” and “you” must be avoided as much as possible.
Some kinds of academic writing enable the use of personal pronouns. As an example, in reflective writing the utilization of the pronoun that is personal accepted.
You should be aware that making use of personal pronouns may be different between academic fields and therefore some disciplines do not accept it after all. Remember to check what exactly is recommended, either by asking your instructor or by reading other academic texts within your subject.
Active and passive voice
One way of preventing the utilization of personal pronouns is to try using the passive voice.
A variety was used by me of ways to analyze my material. (Here the “I” is the subject performing the action).
A number of techniques were utilized to evaluate the material. (This sentence is impersonal and also the action is carried out upon the subject, “A variety of techniques”, by an unnamed agent. The choice of “the” instead of “my” also serves to make the sentence more objective).
Use of the voice that is passive be somewhat heavy and quite often imprecise. Nowadays, many writers avoid an excessive use of the voice that is passive. A way of writing objectively and still use the active voice is to utilize your material, your text or your quest once the active agent pay someone to write my paper.